Glossary

Remove any doubt

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('Aderenza') adherence: climbing technique that, with supports for the feet, exploits the friction between the sole of the boots and the rock. Fundamental to this type of progression are the quality and material of the boots as well as the firm feet of the hiker.

('Appigli') Handholds: stretches of rock or of artificial equipment that, during a progression, are useful for the hands and fingers.

('Appoggi') Footholds: stretches of rock or artificial equipment that, during a progression, are useful for the feet.

('Arenzaria') Sandstone: type of sedimentary rock with increasing degree of hardness. Generally smooth, it is not characterized by a high climbing grip.

('Attacco') Start: The point at which the metal equipment for progressing along the via ferrata begins.

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('Bastionata') Bastion: generally wide and compact rock wall.

('Bivacco') Shelter: mountain hut where it is possible to stop and stay overnight if necessary. It is generally characterized by the absence of managers, a spartan environment and the self-management of hikers.

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('Casco') Helmet: indispensable tool for one's own safety during a via ferrata. It repairs both from falling stones and debris, and from injuriess resulting from the progression or from a possible fall.

('Cambre') Brackets: square metal brackets that facilitate progression. They stand out from nails as they tend to be longer allowing two feet to be able to stand at the same time.

('Camino') Chimney: Rock fissure enclosed between two walls such as to allow the climber to climb inside and, often, can be overcome with spread legs ('split') using both walls.

('Canalone') Gully: Furrow, ravine where the hiker proceeds.

('Cengia') Ledge: exposed and horizontal balcony that interrupts the verticality of the wall. Generally narrow, it is used to cross a wall or as a stopping point.

('Chiodo') Nail: metal blade with ring on the external side used in the via ferrata to support a single foot helping the progression.

('Concatenamento') Combining: combination of multiple routes (eg multiple via ferratas) within the same trip.

('Corda doppia') Repell: common descent method on steep, overhanging or vertical terrain. Generally not necessary in via ferrata except in the case where re-entry by the normal route is not possible.

('Cordata') Roped party: two or more hikers who are tied together for safety reasons.

('Corde fisse') Fixed ropes: Ropes anchored along the route to facilitate the ascent of hikers in difficult sections. In the case of via ferrata, the fixed ropes are metallic and present in almost all of the route.

('Cresta / Crestina') Ridge: stretch a mountain that divides two walls. The meeting of the two sides is the summit ridge while the meeting of two very steep vertical walls is called Spigolo.

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('Diedro') Dihedral: more or less closed corner formed by two rock walls.

('Dissipatore') Sink: tool that intervenes in the event of a fall on a via ferrata absorbing part of the energy generated. To date, the two solutions generally used are the slab and the tear-away sink, with the latter becoming increasingly popular.

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('Esposizione') Exposure: feeling of the underlying emptiness linked to the fact of not being enclosed between walls. It is a subjective factor of difficulty in via ferrata.

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('Fattore di caduta') Fall factor: ratio between the meters of fall and the meters of rope that absorb the fall. In the case of via ferrata, the fall factor is potentially high: maximum distance between two bolts and length of the lanyard (generally 1 meter). In the case of a distance between the 4 meter nails, the drop factor is 4. The high fall factor makes a sink necessary to absorbs the energy generated in the event of a fall.

('Fettuccia') Bend: tape used by the hiker for temporary protection. In the case of via ferrata, it is used to create temporary rest areas by applying a carabiner to one side.

('Fittone') Taproot: anchorage in which the characteristic metallic cable of the via ferrata passes. Its presence requires the passage of the carabiner.

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('Guanti') Gloves: although not necessary, they are recommended in progression during via ferrata, in particular whencontact with metal equipment and the cable is regular.

('Gradino') Step: rock development where progression is made with leaps and wide steps. As in a stone staircase, if the slope is accentuated, the progression occurs with the use of hands.

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('Imbrago') Harness: necessary tool for the progression in via ferrata and for climbing. Allows the impact to be distributed in the event of a fall and is necessary for the attachment of the self-insurance via ferrata set.

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('Ometto') Cairn: stacking of stones on top of each other with the aim of signaling the direction of the itinerary in areas where otherwise it would not be very evident, for example in rocky ridge areas.

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('Passaggio') Passage: characteristic trait of a path worthy of mention in a report. This notification does not necessarily occur due to the difficulty but also due to exposure, orientation, type or lack of equipment, etc.

('Passaggio Chiave') Key step: the most challenging, difficult or complex part of a route.

('Placca') Slab: vertical section of wall characterized by considerable smoothing where progression generally occurs with traction on the cable or with the aid of artificial equipment.

('Placca inclinata') Inclined slab: leaning slab, with a lower inclination degree than the slabs, in which the progression is generally made by tilting the trunk forward.

('Pulpito') Pulpit: rocky terrace on which it is possible to stop.

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('Rifugio') Hut: mountain restaurant, generally managed, where it is possible to be hosted, eat and sleep. If unattended, generally it refers to as a shelter.

('Rinvio') quick draw: climbing tool consisting of two carabiners and a sling. In ferrata it can be useful to simulate a stop despite the inconvenience of being short and not always useful to hang.

('Roccette') Small rocks: stretch of wall in which the rock is very jagged, not particularly vertical, which allows progression by reducing or avoiding the use of the metal cable thanks to the many grips present.

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('Scarpa da avvicinamento') Approach shoes: footwear with characteristics halfway between boots and climbing shoes. They combine good stability with good performance during easy climbing. They are often considered the ideal solution for via ferrata.

('Scarponi') Boots: footwear suitable for hiking in the mountains. If aided with a good rubber sole (eg Vibram, etc.), carved and smooth toe are excellent for progression in via ferrata.

('Scorrimano') Handrails: tract of cable in which the progression occurs with support and balance by the hands. Typical in aided paths and ledges.

('Sentiero Attrezzato') Aided path: path that, where due to exposure or difficulty, ropes or other artificial equipment are added in some points with the aim of facilitating the transit of hikers.

('Set da Ferrata') Via ferrata Set: sink combined with 2 lanyards and 2 carabiners. The via ferrata set is connected to the harness by a specific knot.

('Spigolo') Edge: steep and exposed rocky stretch where two walls meet.

('Staffa') Bracket: artificial metallic tool that helps progression. Generally it allows to stand with just one foot.

('Svilippo della via') Route development: overall length of the itinerary that considers the ups and downs and not the height difference only.

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('Tetto') Roof: overhang of exposed, horizontal and overhanging rock that hinders progression. In via ferratas, the obstacle that is not easy to overcome is often overcome with the aid of artificial tools, such as brackets, nails or stairs.

('Traverso') Traverse: progression on rock in a horizontal or oblique direction in which the grips for the feet are few or missing requiring adherence of the boots with stress of the upper limbs for traction on the cable.

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('Variante') Variant: option to leave the itinerary undertaken, however, reaching the destination set, facing greater or lesser difficulties. In the case of via ferrata, generally the variants allow the less experienced to finish the route or more difficult variants.

('Versante') Side: mountain wall

('Via di fuga') Escape route: the route of a via ferrata can foresee in a stretch an exit from the itinerary allowing those who are not able to finish the climb to return.

Via Ferrata: mountaineering route to access a peak or destination characterized by cables, chains, brackets and other artificial equipment that help the progression of the hiker and allow self-insurance during the climb.

('Via Normale') Normal route: the route of ascent to the top of less difficulty. It could itself include a via Ferrata.